Essay over the enhancement and historical past of plate tectonics

Plate tectonics comes from two phrases plate and tectonic. Plate in geological terms suggests a substantial slab of hard rock although tectonics in Greek impliesa�� to builda��. Thereforea�� plate tectonic may be defined as how the eartha��s is designed on relocating the plate. It may possibly also be well-defined for a rigid section with the Earth’s lithosphere that moves separately from those people surrounding it (Rodger, 1993). Idea of plate tectonics states which the lithosphere from the earth is created up of particular person plates that are fragmented into several substantial and compact pieces of sound rock. The plates transfer up coming to one another along with the reduced mantle to produce diverse varieties of plate borders that have shaped the Earth’s landscape over several years.(Oreskes & Legrand, 2001). Alfred Wegener, a popular meteorologist, is known to be the founder from the plate tectonic idea; He noticed that the coastline of East South America and that of west coast of Africa seemed to fit together in a jigsaw manner like to form a bigger plate. He then proposed an idea that all plates (continents) were connected to a single large plate called Pangaea which gradually began to drift apart about 300 million decades ago (Rodger, 1993). More scientific research to the platesa�� coastline revealed that all the plate of eartha��s continent somehow fit together. The theory was commonly known as continental drift theory, and Wegener became the founder on the idea on which scientist have based their research on. However, Alfred Wegener plate tectonics idea could not ascertain how exactly the continents drifted away from every single other. He proposed the eartha��s rotations and the centrifugal forces towards the equator as the mechanism for continental drift. He said that Pangaea started at South Pole and eartha��s rotation finally caused it to break up, sending continents toward the equator. His theories were discarded by the scientific community (Rodger, 1993). Arthur Holmes, (1929), a British geologist, came up with the idea of thermal convection to explain the gradual drift of the Earth’s continents. He based on heating and cooling cycle in the Earth’s mantle that caused the continents to transfer. The idea has been borrowed by scientist community in their quest for eartha��s shape. Today scientist have researched and analyzed past evidences and findings by geologist and scientist to expound and come up with a better ways of explaining plate tectonic concept and forces that were behind the drifting in the plates. It is believed and proofed using geological evidence that eartha��s plate at one time was one super plate called Pangaea. Due to three main driving forces namely, mantle convection, gravity, and the Earth’s rotation led to the drifting away of various plate from the main one. Several major plates (continents) were formed which include North America, South America, Eurasia, Africa, Indo-Australian, Pacific, and Antarctica. Expounding around the three main driving forces for the movement from the Earth’s tectonic plates; Mantle convection is the most extensively studied technique of tectonic plate movement. It was widely discussed by Holmes in 1929, in his theory. The massive convection current of molten material in the Eartha��s upper mantle produces a lot of energies which is transferred to lessen mantle. The reduced mantle material finds their way to the crust causing the embedded rock to move out and away from the ridge thus shifting the plate. Evidence of this is shown at mid-ocean ridges. Gravity is evidenced by the mid-ocean ridges where the elevation is higher than the encompassing ocean floor. Convection currents within the Earth cause lower mantle material to rise and spread away from the ridge, causing the older material to flow toward the ocean floor due to gravity and aid in the movement of the plates. Then lastly earth rotation is caused by centrifugal forces as earth rotates (Oreskes $ Legrand, 2001). Plates form different sorts of boundary as they interact with their movement. Some on the boundaries formed include Divergent boundaries form when a plate breaks along certain lines of weakness and shift away from just about every other forming a new crust, for instance, Mid-ocean ridges. The other boundary is called Convergent boundaries and is created when two plates collide with one another causing the sinking of one plate below the other. Transform boundaries forms at location where new crust created and without destroying it. Today, through research, scientists have come up with numerous evidences proving that earth plates were once super plate which split into the current Continents. Some of your evidences include: the jig-saw fitting with the East coast of South America and west coast of Africa appear to fit into one another; Fossils remains of plants and animals collected by scientist around the world showed similarities that were tough to explain unless continents had once been joined. For instance, Cynognathus was a land reptile. Its Fossils remains have been found in both Africa and South America, thus proving that the two continents were once joined (Oreskes $ Legrand., 2001). Scientist have also found out from the evidence of earthquakes happened continually and occurred along certain lines, near the boundaries between tectonic plates. As Wegener’s ideas forms the basis why the landscape from the earth is the way it is, scientist community currently advanced methodology of studying the plate tectonic concept. They use satellite to study evidences of plate tectonic where they position it several kilometers away from the earth surface. From the satellite statistics, it is evidenced that the plates move linearly and away from every other at the speed of 10mm to 100mm per year.

References Oreskes, N., & LeGrand, H. E. (2001). Plate tectonics: An insider’s record with the modern idea in the Earth. Boulder, Colo: Westview Press. Rogers, J. J. W. (1993). A background of your earth. New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press.